Tuesday 23 June 2015

Notes on inscriptions: Nikandre's Central Ionic

ID 2 (= LSAG 303, 2; Buck, no. 6; Colvin, no. 23), a specimen of 7th-c. BC Central Ionic. The Anne Jeffery Archive offers a very full range of materials. The text of the inscription is presented in the Beazley Archive and details of the monument by the Museum of Classical Archaeology, Cambridge (whose cast is depicted below).

Νικάνδρη μ’ ἀνέθε̄κεν ℎ(ε)κηβόλο̄ι ἰοχεαίρηι | ϟο̄́ρη Δεινο-
δίκη̆ο̄ το̑ Ναℎσίο̄ ἔℎ3σοχος ἀλ(λ)ή̆ο̄ν | Δεινομένεος δὲ κασιγνε̄́τη
Φℎράℎσο̄  δ’ ἄλοχος μ[ήν?].

ℎ(ε)κηβόλ- (cf. Il.1.14 of Apollo) was originally ϝεκᾰ-βόλ- (cf. ἕκων and σάφα: see the Mantiklos dedication to Apollo). The metrical lengthening to allow its use in a hexameter (by eliminatyed a run of three light syllables) must predate the Attic-Ionic change of */a:/ to /æ:/ (see below) and then to /ε:/. That is, the long vowel arose early enough to be treated as an original or inherited /a:/. The epithet (ϝ)ἑκα(ϝ)εργος (Il.1.147, etc.) required no such lengthening because there was no run of three light syllables.

Of course, ἰοχέαιρα an epithet of Artemis is passim in Homer. Apart from two instances (Il.20.71 after Ἄρτεμις, Il.21.480 νείκεσεν), it is always, as here, the last word in its line. In Il.9.538 and Od.6.102, 11.198 , as here, Artemis is not named.

Although masculine ἔξοχος ἄλλων ends plenty of hexameters in Homer and in related poetry, its Ionic feminine form ἔξοχος ἀλλέων is only found here. AR.4.792 has what would be an earlier feminine form at the opening of a hexameter: ἔξοχον ἀλλά̄ων. Call.Art.189 is signficantly different.

κασιγνε̄́τη shows, in a single word, epsilon for the inherited long e vowel and eta for the (Central) Ionic outcome (/æ:/) of the inherited long a vowel. At length Νικάνδρη μ’ ἀνέθε̄κεν shows the same phenomenon. Later inscriptions use eta for vowels of both origins. Cf., albeit a supplement, [τὰ̄ν κασιγ]νήτᾱν in Sapph.5.9. (See ZPE 189 (2014) 11 for the corroboration provided by the 2014 discovery: ' τὰ̄ν κασιγ . [ '.

On the -ηο and -ηων a-stem genitive endings, Geoffrey Horrocks noted (1987: 281-282n. 35) [the original macra have been replaced with : as a marker of a long vowel]:

"No length distinctions are represented graphically, with E spelling /ε/, /ε:/ and /e:/ [ἀνέθε̄κεν = ἀνθηκεν], O spelling /o/, /ɔ:/ and /o:/>[ℎ(ε)κηβόλο̄ι = ἑκηβλωι; το̑ Ναℎσίο̄  = τοῦ Ναξίου], so there is no reason to think that H is being used exclusively to represent /æ:/; it was presumably also used to represent the shortened form of this sound that resulted from quantitative metathesis. In other words, the spelling -ΗΟ(Ν) almost | certainly represents a sequence of short vowell plus long vowel run together in pronunciation by synizesis exactly equivalent to the conventional -εω(ν) of Ionic literary texts. There can be no question of forms without quantitative metathesis surviving in the sixth century in spoken Ionic (cf. note 32), or, given the developmments that place in the epic tradition as evidenced by Homer, in literary Ionic.".

There is no example of spelling /e:/, but there are Δεινο|δίκη̆ο̄  and Δεινομένεος with the genuine diphthong seen in δεινός < *dwei-no-. Cf. gen.sg. Δ̣ϝε(ι)νία in IG IV 358 see (also Anne Jeffrey's materials and Buck, no. 91]

Note that Nikandre's father and brother have names with the same first element: δεινο-. Her name is unique, as is her father's, but her brother's name had a good innings. Her husband's name, Phraxos, is also unique.

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