Friday 8 August 2014

φωνή in Heracl(e)ides Criticus 294-220 BC (369A New Jacoby)

The translations are by Jeremy McInerney.

Fragment 1, section 20 (Boeotian women):
Εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ ταῖς ὁμιλίαις οὐ λίαν Βοιώτιαι, μᾶλλον δὲ Σικυώνιαι. Καὶ ἡ φωνὴ δ’ αὐτῶν ἐστὶν ἐπίχαρις· τῶν δ’ ἀνθρώπων ἀτερπὴς καὶ βαρεῖα.
In their social behaviour the women are scarcely Boiotian, but rather Sikyonian. Their speech is delightful, while their men’s is harsh and overbearing.
1.30 (Chalcis):
Ἡ δὲ χώρα πᾶσα αὐτῶν ἐλαιόφυτος, ἀγαθὴ δὲ καὶ ἡ θάλαττα. Οἱ δ’ ἐνοικοῦντες Ἕλληνες οὐ τῷ γένει μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ τῇ φωνῇ· τῶν μαθημάτων ἐντός· φιλαπόδημοι· γραμματικοί· τὰ προσπίπτοντα ἐκ τῆς πατρίδος δυσχερῆ γενναίως φέροντες· δουλεύοντες γὰρ πολὺν ἤδη χρόνον, τοῖς δὲ τρόποις ὄντες ἐλεύθεροι, μεγάλην εἰλήφασιν ἕξιν τοῦ φέρειν ῥᾳθύμως τὰ προσπίπτοντα.
Their entire territory is planted with olives, and the sea is good to them as well. The inhabitants are Greek not only by descent but also in speech. In their lessons, they are well travelled and well read. The misfortunes they have suffered, such as banishment and other disasters, they bear nobly. For though they have long been enslaved, by maintaining the manners of free men, they have acquired the habit of bearing misfortune lightly.
Ἕλληνες μὲν γάρ εἰσι τῷ γένει, καὶ ταῖς φωναῖς ἑλληνίζουσιν οἱ ἀφ’ Ἕλληνος· Ἀθηναῖοι δὲ οἱ τὴν Ἀττικὴν κατοικοῦντες Ἀττικοὶ μέν εἰσι τῷ γένει, ταῖς δὲ διαλέκτοις ἀττικίζουσιν, ὥσπερ Δωριεῖς μὲν οἱ ἀπὸ Δώρου τῇ φωνῇ δωρίζουσιν· αἰολίζουσι δὲ οἱ ἀπὸ Αἰόλου, ἰάζουσι δὲ οἱ ἀπὸ Ἴωνος τοῦ Ξούθου φύντες.
So Hellenes are those who are descended from Hellen and speak the Hellenic language inherited from Hellen. So too, Athenians, who dwell in Attica, are Attic by birth, and speak Attic with respect to their dialect, just as Dorians are those who speak Doric Greek inherited from Doros, while those descended from Aiolos speak Aiolic, and those who spring from Ion, son of Xouthos, speak Ionic Greek.
 Ἡ δὲ καλουμένη νῦν Ἑλλὰς λέγεται μὲν, οὐ μέντοι ἐστί· τὸ γὰρ ἑλληνίζειν ἐγὼ εἶναί φημι οὐκ ἐν τῷ διαλέγεσθαι ὀρθῶς, ἀλλ’ ἐν τῷ γένει τῆς φωνῆς· αὕτη δ’ ἐστὶν ἀφ’ Ἕλληνος· ἡ δὲ Ἑλλὰς ἐν Θετταλίᾳ κεῖται. Ἐκείνους οὖν ἐροῦμεν τὴν Ἑλλάδα κατοικεῖν καὶ ταῖς φωναῖς ἑλληνίζειν.
What is presently called Greece is a word, but not a reality, for I maintain that ‘to hellenize’ or ‘speak Greek’ is not a matter of correct pronunciation but concerns the language’s descent. This speech is from Hellen. Hellas lies in Thessaly. Accordingly we say that those men inhabit Hellas, and, with respect to their speech, they ‘hellenize’ or ‘speak Greek’.

Ὅτι δὲ πᾶσα ἣν κατηριθμήμεθα Ἑλλάς ἐστι, μαρτυρεῖ ἡμῖν ὁ τῶν κωμῳδιῶν ποιητὴς Ποσείδιππος, μεμφόμενος Ἀθηναίοις, ὅτι τὴν αὑτῶν φωνὴν καὶ τὴν πόλιν φασὶ τῆς Ἑλλάδος εἶναι, λέγων οὕτως·
  Ἑλλὰς μέν ἐστι μία, πόλεις δὲ πλείονες.
  Σὺ μὲν ἀττικίζεις, ἡνίκ’ ἂν φωνὴν λέγῃς
  αὑτοῦ τιν’· οἱ δ’ Ἕλληνες ἑλληνίζομεν.
  Τί προσδιατρίβων συλλαβαῖς καὶ γράμμασιν
  τὴν εὐτραπελίαν εἰς ἀηδίαν ἄγεις; 
That everything which we have included in our account constitutes Hellas finds confirmation in the work of the comic poet Poseidippos, when he reproaches the Athenians for claiming that theirs is the language and the city of Hellas, saying as follows:One Hellas there is, though cities there are many.
You speak Attic, and your utterances take the prize
They’re so distinctive. But we Hellenes hellenize.
Why must you transform the euphonious,
With your obsession with syllables and letters,
Into verses malodious?
The author's name might involve the ethnic Κρητικός Cretan, not Κριτικός.

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